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The Power of Parts Work in Psychotherapy

Parts work is a powerful technique used in many forms of psychotherapy and counseling. It's based on the idea that we all have different "parts" or sub-personalities within us. These parts can have different perspectives, feelings, needs, and motivations.

Parts work helps you identify and understand the various parts within yourself. Some common parts include:

  • The inner critic - The part that judges you harshly.

  • The inner protector - The part that shields you from hurt.

  • The inner child - The part holding your childhood wounds and needs.

  • The inner rebel - The part that resists rules.

By personifying and conversing with these inner parts, you can:

  • Give voice to different emotions and needs within yourself. This builds self-awareness and integration.

  • Uncover core wounds, limiting beliefs, and inner conflicts causing distress.

  • Cultivate compassion and understanding for all aspects of yourself.

  • Learn to meet your parts' needs in healthy, adaptive ways.

There are a few main ways therapists use parts work:

  • Guided visualization and meditation to get in touch with your parts. Your therapist may have you visualize parts or do meditations to invite them in.

  • Inner dialogs and role play. You'll speak from the voice of different parts, having inner dialogs and even role playing interactions between them.

  • Parts mapping. Visual maps help you identify your key parts and understand how they relate to each other.

  • Parts therapy. Dedicated models like Internal Family Systems focus extensively on working with your parts.

The goal is to create an inner team of parts aligned around your true self and values. When embraced skillfully, parts work leads to self-understanding, integration, and lasting change.

Identifying Different Parts of the Self

Parts work is all about getting to know the different parts that make up your inner world. This allows you to understand yourself on a deeper level. So how do you actually identify your parts? There are a few key techniques:

  • Observe your internal dialog and shifts in mood or perspective. Pay attention to when you notice distinct "voices" or sides of yourself emerging. For instance, your inner critic vs. your inner nurturer.

  • Consider recurring roles or personas you find yourself embodying. The part of you that is responsible vs. the part that wants to rebel or break rules. The part of you that is driven and ambitious vs. the part that wants to take it easy.

  • Notice emotional triggers or conflicts. If you feel sudden anger or fear in response to something, a reactive part may be getting activated. If you feel pulled in multiple directions, different parts might be clashing.

  • Use guided visualization and meditation. Picture meeting different parts of yourself. What do they look like? How do they act? Let them speak to you.

  • Use art, journaling, dialog or role play. Having parts literally speak or express themselves can be illuminating.

  • Work with a therapist. A skilled professional can help you safely access and map out your inner landscape.

The goal is increased self-awareness and understanding. With practice, you'll get better at detecting parts when they emerge and even learning their positive intentions. This sets the stage for inner reconciliation and integration.

Different Theories of Parts Work

Parts work draws from various psychotherapy theories and practices. Here are some theories that work with parts:

  • Internal Family Systems (IFS): This views the self as containing different sub-personalities or "parts", each with its own perspective and role. The goal is to understand each part and unburden it so the true self can lead the way.

  • Gestalt therapy: Focus is on awareness of different internal parts and experimenting with letting each one fully emerge and express itself. The most well know type of Gestalt therapy is chair work, in which a client externalizes and interacts with parts of themselves with the use of an empty chair.

  • Ego state therapy: Draws on transactional analysis and the idea of separate "ego states" that hold different memories, feelings, and behaviors. Uses techniques like inner child work.

  • Psychodrama: Parts are referred to as 'roles' and clients have the opportunity to externalize parts and interact with them. Psychodrama is mostly done in groups, and group members are chosen by the client to represent the different roles in the clients scene.

  • Mindfulness: Non-judgmental observation of different parts, rather than over-identifying with any one part, allows for greater acceptance and integration.

The common thread is that we all contain different parts of us that make us the multi-layered individuals that we are. By bringing these to light in a caring way, we can understand ourselves better and work towards feeling more harmony within ourselves.

Bringing Harmony Amongst Parts for Healing

In parts work, the goal is to help fragmented parts or parts that are in conflict with each other to come together in greater harmony and balance. This leads to improved mental health and an inner sense of wholeness. Look for a qualified professional to do this kind of work with to start. Over time you can learn how to do it on your own.


Blatner, A., & Blatner, A. (1988). Foundations of psychodrama. New York.

Hill, Sylvia (2023) "Internal Family Systems (IFS) Therapy: Non-pathologizing healing for inner peace," Issues in Religion and Psychotherapy: Vol. 41: No. 1, Article 3.

Kornyeyeva, L. (2023). Rethinking the Parent: A Valuing-Based Ego State Model. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 14(2), 24-32.

Pascual-Leone, A., & Baher, T. (2023). Chairwork.

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